By Geoffrey H. Dutton
Whilst spatial facts is digitized to be used in geographic details platforms and different software program, information regarding its unique scale, answer and accuracy is often misplaced. consequently, utilizing such details at varied scales and mixing it with info from different assets can be tricky. Mapping vector information at smaller than the unique scale calls for its generalization, that's frequently dealt with by way of post-processing in ways in which are just weakly supported by way of databases. The types and strategies defined during this ebook triumph over many such difficulties through supplying a multi-resolution facts illustration that permits retrieval of map information at a hierarchy of scales, in addition to documenting the accuracy of each spatial coordinate.
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Additional resources for A Hierarchical Coordinate System for Geoprocessing and Cartography (Lecture Notes in Earth Sciences)
Schematic of GEM tessellation (ZOT projection) Fig. 9. Structure of the Geodesic Elevation Model This Archidemean solid (a rhombic dodecahedron) was recursively subdivided by introducing new vertices in the centers of existing triangles, triangulating them with each other and existing nodes. New vertices "pimple" or "dimple" (move away from or toward the Earth's center, respectively) depending on the elevation values for points connected to them, with the default being not to change elevation. To indicate these conditions, leaf node data describing a facet's elevation change was coded to 01, 10 or 11, respectively.
Each of the 32 facets in this model is treated as flat, and all locations within it projected from geographic coordinates to planar ones using a Lambert conic equal area projection that varies distances between sampling points by less than two percent (White et al 1992). Within any primary EMAP hexagonal or pentagonal plate, various tessellations provide equal-area sampling units across a range of scales. Triangular, rhombic and hexagonal grids may all be utilized, depending on the type of resources and stressors to be monitored and the desired sampling density.
10. Relations between GEM's dual triangular hierarchies Although GEM could accept elevation data for any or all points on a planet, it was realized that even a medium-dense elevation model for a whole one would consume huge amounts of storage, even at the rate of less than one bit per triangular facet theoretically possible, Some portions of a GEM pyramid would always be omitted, and some localities would have fewer levels of encoding (resulting in a smaller number of larger facets) than others.
A Hierarchical Coordinate System for Geoprocessing and Cartography (Lecture Notes in Earth Sciences) by Geoffrey H. Dutton