By Sanford C. Goldberg
Sanford Goldberg argues right account of the conversation of information via speech has anti-individualistic implications for either epistemology and the philosophy of brain and language. partially 1 he deals a unique argument for anti-individualism approximately brain and language, the view that the contents of one's recommendations and the meanings of one's phrases count for his or her individuation on one's social and traditional surroundings. partially 2 he discusses the epistemic size of information conversation, arguing that the epistemic features of communication-based ideals depend upon gains of the cognitive and linguistic acts of the subject's social friends. In acknowledging an ineliminable social size to brain, language, and the epistemic different types of data, justification, and rationality, his booklet develops basic hyperlinks among externalism within the philosophy of brain and language, at the one hand, and externalism is epistemology, at the different.
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Additional info for Anti-Individualism: Mind and Language, Knowledge and Justification
How can this be modified to cover the case in which the hearer’s testimonial belief is grounded on her qualified epistemic reliance on a piece of say-so? In such cases (i) and (iii) are not quite right; and for this reason the corresponding (a) and (c) are not quite right either (even assuming that reliability is the right way to gloss the normative propriety of assertion and the non-accidentality condition on knoweldge). ’ In the case of (a) and (c), the fix will be a bit more involved. Briefly, the idea would be to replace both (a) and (c) with the following single condition: (c*) the hearer’s acceptance of the testimony was the upshot of a reliable capacity for acquiring reliable belief through epistemic reliance.
If we want an account of how the reliability condition on knowledge is satisfied in cases of testimonial knowledge, we need to include a condition requiring the hearer’s reliable recovery of the proposition attested to. The point here is that it is not enough for the hearer H to rely on the normative acceptability of the testimony, if all that this comes to is a matter of H’s forming a belief on the basis of her (perhaps implicit) assumption that the testimony was normatively acceptable. For such acceptance is compatible with misunderstanding the testimony, and we have just seen that misunderstanding testimony is a way of introducing a knowledge-undermining element of luck into the process of belief-formation.
To hold such a view is (roughly) to hold that assertion is that unique speech act instances of which are appropriately assessed by reference to the epistemic norm in question. ) I will have something to say about this matter in chapter 3. Until that time I simply stipulate that I am interested in knowledge transmission in cases whether the propositional content of the knowledge acquired is precisely that of the testimonial speech act. 16 Knowledge communication some hold that it is knowledge (Unger 1975; Brandom 1983 and 1994; DeRose 1991; Adler 1996; and Williamson (2000)), while others suggest that it is some epistemic status short of knowledge (Kvanvig (2003 and forthcoming), Lackey (unpublished manuscript)).
Anti-Individualism: Mind and Language, Knowledge and Justification by Sanford C. Goldberg