By Katherine Munn, Barry Smith
Ontology is the philosophical self-discipline that goals to appreciate how issues on this planet are divided into different types and the way those different types are similar. this can be precisely what info scientists objective for in growing based, computerized representations, referred to as ontologies, for coping with info in fields such as technology, executive, undefined, and healthcare. presently, those platforms are designed in various other ways, so they can't proportion information with each other. This quantity exhibits, in a non-technical approach and utilizing examples from drugs and biology, how the rigorous software of theories and insights from philosophical ontology can enhance the ontologies upon which details administration relies.
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Thus, ontology is often opposed to epistemology; the former is often said to be about what there really is, whereas the latter is only about what we know. A common view, for instance, is that ontology is concerned with the level of things rather than 43 the level of truths. That is, ontology concerns objects in the world, not our thoughts as they are expressed in true propositions or true sentences (Smith and Mulligan, 1983, 73). Goclenius, however, does not distinguish between things and truths.
Finally, Goclenius continues, one may abstract matter from a given thing in reality as much as in thought. The result will be that the entity in question literally no longer possesses any matter. This Goclenius calls transnatural abstraction, of which, he claims, only God and the so-called divine Intelligences are capable. There are at least three important things to note here. First, Goclenius identifies ontological abstraction with mathematical abstraction. He thereby implies that ontology in general, as much as mathematics, is concerned with abstract entities and formal structures.
Individual organisms – which are instantiations of the classes represented in these hierarchies – are not taken into consideration. This lack of consideration has partially to do with the fact that the medical terminology, which constitutes the basis for current biomedical ontologies, so overwhelmingly derives from the medical dictionaries of the past. Authors of dictionaries, as well as those involved in knowledge representation, are mainly interested in what is general. However, an adequate ontology of the biological domain must take individuals (instances, particulars) as well as classes into account (see Chapters 7, 8, and 10).
Applied Ontology by Katherine Munn, Barry Smith